Hispanic Marketing:  A Cultural Perspective

 

By

 

Felipe Korzenny, Ph.D. Director of the Center for Hispanic Marketing Communication at Florida State University, and Cheskin Co-Founder

 

And

 

Betty Ann Korzenny, Instructor and Associate Director of the Center for the Study of Hispanic Marketing Communication at Florida State University

 

Book Description


This book is about strategic thinking in Hispanic marketing. The size and economic importance of the Hispanic market in the US are attracting enormous attention. The buying power of the US Hispanic market is now larger than the GDP of the entire country of Mexico, and it is the second largest Hispanic market in the world. Businesses and institutions have launched major initiatives to reach this important segment. Yet, the number of qualified individuals who understand the market is small; and many of those already catering to the market still struggle to learn about its intricacies.

This book is a cultural approach to Hispanic marketing. Each of the chapters describes and explains the cultural principles of Latino marketing. Recent case studies help marketers relate to the material pragmatically. The book integrates concepts and practical examples and provides critical guidance to discern between alternative courses of action.

This book is not about repeating well-known statistics, but about the Hispanic market as a cultural target. It takes a profound look at the values, beliefs, and emotions of US Hispanics, which impact consumer behaviour. Each of the chapters has been the subject of public presentations and lectures to marketing professionals. It is their positive reactions as well as the authors dedication to Hispanic consumers which motivated this book.

* The first comprehensive guide to integrated marketing principles for the Hispanic market, the fastest-growing demographic in the United States
* Provides insight, conceptual tools and guidance to marketers on effective positioning of products in this market
* Creates a framework for to delineate the Hispanic market from larger ethnic and cross-cultural marketing approaches

"There is no more important segment of the American consumer marketplace of tomorrow than Hispanics, and there is no more important book to read about marketing to Hispanics than this one. Every page delivers an insight worth knowing. Most marketers get it wrong when it comes to Hispanics, leaving an enormous opportunity for first movers who do it right. This book shows the way to get there first. I've put it on the Yankelovich short list of must-read books."


--J. Walker Smith, Ph.D., President, Yankelovich Partners, Inc.

"This book is a must read for not just those engaged in ethnic marketing but for all marketing professionals. Hispanic Marketing provides true insight into the Hispanic market and compelling rationale for addressing Hispanic consumers as part of any organized approach to marketing in the U.S.
overall. This market segment is far too large, far too affluent, and growing far too quickly to be ignored - and yet it is much too rich and distinct as a culture to be communicated to superficially. Felipe and Betty Ann Korzenny provide us with salient information, and more importantly, tools and an approach, to unlock the full potential of the
Hispanic consumer. This book is truly a breakthrough in enabling a comprehensive and meaningful understanding of this market.


- Michael Durance, Vice President & General Manager, Telecommunication Systems Division Communications Information Group, Toshiba America Information Systems, Inc.

"The Korzennys understand the Latino market deeply and thoroughly. Reading their book is like sitting in one of their seminars and being enthralled by their insights and depth of knowledge. Their writing is especially powerful in that it demonstrates hands-on knowledge of consumers, marketers and Latino advertising agencies. The Korzennys provides actionable answers to frequently asked questions and guidance on how to manage the obstacles in developing effective marketing programs."


-- Hector Orci, CEO/Co-Chair, La Agencia de Orcí & Asociados

"An in-depth understanding of the Hispanic Community's cultural pillars and biases is the foundation for sound hispanic marketing. And the Korzennys book provides that, and more. It offers a rich and much needed perspective for anyone trying to target US Hispanics by making the crucial linkage between culture and marketing strategies."


-- David Wellisch, Vice President and General Manager, AOL Latino

"Account Planners contemplating how they might grow a brand with the Hispanic consumer will zoom up the learning curve with a read of this book. Planners will also find a very useful guide for the next steps they need to take to collect the category and brand specific insights they need to forge a strong emotional brand connection with Hispanic consumers. And they will be inspired by the many case studies discussed throughout the book.

Marketers approaching Hispanic marketing with vexing questions of language dialect usage, translations, research paradoxes, and even what to call this market, will find well informed guidance on these matters. They will also come away with a good basic understanding of how to bring their brand messages to the marketplace, with a great primer on Hispanic media in the U.S."


- Denise Fedewa, SVP, Planning Director, Leo Burnett, USA

"Account Planners contemplating how they might grow a brand with the Hispanic consumer will zoom up the learning curve with a read of this book. Planners will also find a very useful guide for the next steps they need to take to collect the category and brand specific insights they need to forge a strong emotional brand connection with Hispanic consumers. And they will be inspired by the many case studies discussed throughout the book.

Marketers approaching Hispanic marketing with vexing questions of language dialect usage, translations, research paradoxes, and even what to call this market, will find well informed guidance on these matters. They will also come away with a good basic understanding of how to bring their brand messages to the marketplace, with a great primer on Hispanic media in the U.S."


- Denise Fedewa, SVP, Planning Director, Leo Burnett, USA

"As a marketer, and as a Hispanic I found the book enlightening and educational. In an environment where there is so much information about the demographics and psychographics of the US Hispanic market, the authors offer a much deeper understanding of how to be successful in marketing to Hispanics by going beyond stereotypes and generalizations, developing new models and approaches and doing this via a wealth of case studies and a "how to" approach that any marketer or agency will find helpful."


-- Ernesto Levy, Associate Marketing Director,
Procter & Gamble - Household Needs Division

"The Korzennys have accomplished a complex feat in their new book, Hispanic Marketing.
Somehow this powerful and important work satisfies the needs of anyone and everyone that has an interest in the evolution, realities, theories, craft, art and science of US Hispanic marketing. Additionally, it serves to provide insight into the societal and cultural aspects of the US Latino experience. Top level marketers will appreciate the specific action-oriented recommendations and key marketing implications that accompany each chapter. Advertising agency executives from integrated marketing disciplines will value the Korzenny's depth of experience and objectivity in presenting the many sides to the many stories that make up a day in the life the multi-dimensional US Hispanic consumer. But this is also a wonderful book for non-industry readers to embrace because of the story it tells about the vibrant history and significant future of Latinos in the rich culturally-blended story that is unique to life in the United States."


-- Rochelle Newman-Carrasco, CEO, Enlace Communications

"During many years of working in Hispanic Marketing I have never seen anything that so clearly describes and understands the complex dynamics of the New America.

The Korzennys have built over many years their reputation as the best Multi-cultural minds of our business. I have entrusted them with many projects in our 10 years of relationship and always relied on their expert advice. This work allows me to confirm once again that they are the leaders of thought I always knew and will continue to lead insight development within the Hispanic Market as they shape the minds of generations to come."


-- Juan Carlos Olivar, Customer Marketing Manager, The Coca-Cola Company

Contents
Chapter 1: The Role of Culture in Cross-Cultural Marketing
The importance of culture in marketing
Culture
Objective culture
Examples of Hispanic objective culture
Subjective culture
Beliefs
Values and attitudes
Interpretation and perception
Culture, fish, and water
Cultural boundaries
Marketers “angst”
Why a cultural approach to marketing?
A psycho-socio-cultural approach
Accurate predictions
of behavior
What happens without cultural knowledge?
The paradox of social class across cultures
The challenge facing Hispanic ad agencies
A targetable market?
Size
Purchasing power
Shared perceptions, motivations, beliefs, and values
It is not a race
A common heritage
A common language
Media facilitate specific targeting
Geographic concentration
A cultural perspective makes the difference


 

 

Chapter 2: Characteristics of the Hispanic Market
Cultural and Historical Origins of Hispanics
Iberian Diversity and Commonality
What constitutes the Hispanic Market
Hispanic Immigration and How the Border was Left Behind
Mexico as the largest contributor
Puerto Rico
Cuba
Central America
South America
Dominicans
Implications of homogeneity and diversity
Testing the Assumption of Homogeneity
Geographic Trends
Implications of Geographic Dispersion
Socioeconomic Trends
The Elite
The Middle Class
The Working Class Mass
Income Levels
Family Size and Economic Behavior
Education
Conclusions & Implications for Marketers
Implications for marketers
Case Studies
Marbo Tampico Case Study
Bromley Charmin Case Study

Chapter 4: The Role of Language in Hispanic Marketing
The Relationship between Language and Culture
The art of translation
Professional Translations?

Translation, Confusion, and the Reason Why?
Should it be in Spanish, English, or Bilingual?
Language and Thought
Why Market in Spanish?
Reach Out and Touch Someone
“Spanglish,” Code-Switching, and the Future
A Language or a Style of Communication?
Purism vs. Pragmatism
The Emerging Bilingual Hispanic Market
The Growing Importance of Marketing to Hispanics in English
Spanish Speaking Hispanics are Easy to Target
Why Not Target English Speaking Hispanics?
An Overlooked Language Opportunity
The Language Numbers Game
The 2003 Yankelovich Multicultural Monitor
English Language Understanding
Those Who First Learned Spanish Watch Half Their TV in English
Language Ambivalence
Trust in Brands and Ad Persuasiveness
A Complex but Flourishing Identity
A Schizophrenic Communication Environment
The New Dynamic of the Hispanic market
Conclusions and Implications for Marketers
Implications for marketers
Case Studies
Español Corona Extra Case Study
San Jose Group Ameritech Caller ID Case Study

Chapter 3: What Makes Hispanics “Hispanic”
The Role of Cultural Identity in Marketing
Reference Groups as the Basis of Cultural Identity
Social Learning Theory and Reference Groups
Similarity and Homophily
Expertise and Successful Models
Even an Oppressor can be a Model
Empirical Determination of Models
Identity and Socialization
Marketers Need for Predictability
Hispanic Identities and Labels
The Question Influences the Answer
Essentially Hispanic?
Labels
Hispanic or Latino?

The Measurement Challenge
Label Choice as Equivalent of Identity
Classification Based on Country of Origin/Ancestry
Further Identity/Reference Group Measures
Behavioral/Objective Measures:
Subjective Cultural Identification
Conclusions and Implications for Marketers
Implications for marketers
Case Studies
Acento Nissan Case Study
Enlace Macy’s West Case Study

Chapter 5: The Processes of Enculturation, Acculturation, and Assimilation
The New Immigration Mix
The Meaning of Cultural Change
Culture and Awareness
Enculturation, Acculturation, and Assimilation
Enculturation
Acculturation and Assimilations
Third Culture Individuals
Acculturation Segmentation
Bi-Dimensional Acculturation Segmentation
A Multidimensional Acculturation Segmentation
Acculturation Segmentation by Life Stage
Acculturation Segmentation and Cultural Tension
The Future of Hispanic Segmentation
Stereotypes and Acculturation
Stereotype Stages
Stereotypes and Their Impact on the Larger Society
Stereotypes and Their Impact on Hispanics
Conclusions and Implications
Implications for marketers
Case Studies
KFernandez McCormick Case Study
San Jose Group National Pork Board Case Study
Español Countrywide Case Study
Allstate Case Study

Chapter # 6 Cultural Dimensions and Archetypes
Introduction
Going beyond the surface to beat the competition
Successful positioning
Cultural dimensions and archetypes as means to needed differentiation in the marketplace
Establishing a cultural-emotional link with consumers
Cultural Dimensions
Monochronism and polychronism
Cultural perceptions of time
Customer care and product usage
Media habits
Monomorphic and polymorphic leadership
Individualism and collectivism
Androgyny
Cultural attributions
Cultural archetypes
Identifying archetypes
Popular culture and literature
In-depth interviewing and ethnography
Selected archetypes that make a marketing communication difference in the Hispanic market
Money
Happiness, life, religion, and death
The roots of fatalism
Mañana
Celebration of life
Life is a valley of tears
Guilt vs. Shame,
Parent-Child Relationships
Machismo and Marianismo
Health beliefs, remedies, and modern medicine
Curanderismo
Hot and Cold Theory of Illness
Conclusions and Implications
Implications for marketers
Case Studies
San Jose Group Ameritech Voicemail Case Study
Bromley Burger King Case Study
MendozaDillon Galderma Case Study
San Jose Group ATA Case Study

Chapter 7: Culturally Informed Strategy Based on Grounded Research
The Cultural Research Paradox
The Paradox of Linguistic Equivalence
Cultural Adaptation and Transculturation
Back Translation
The Paradox
The Emic and Etic Perspectives
“Cultural Bias” and Standardization
Use of Scales
Likert-Type Scales
Ratio Type Scales
Semantic Differential Scales
Little Faces
Choice of Data Collection Approaches
The Wrong Question
Qualitative Approaches
Focus Groups
Key considerations in making a Hispanic focus group productive:
Mini Groups
Dyads
In-Depth One-On-One Interviews
Ethnographic Interviews
Scrapbooks and Photographs
Quantitative Approaches
Selection of Approach
Mail
Phone
Door-to-Door
Intercepts
Online
Common Types of Quantitative Studies
Specific Hispanic Issues in Quantitative Research
The Account Planner
Conclusions and Implications
Implications for marketers

Chapter 8: US. Hispanic Media Environment and Strategy
Television
Univision Grew With the Market
Telemundo Trying Harder
The Acceleration of Change
Mun2
Azteca America
Hispanic Television Network
Cable and Satellite Options
Liberation Technologies
What Hispanics Watch
Radio
The Culture of Radio Listening
Hispanic Radio’s Growth and Consolidation in the US
Underestimating Radio
Still, It Is Not Only Spanish Radio
Print
Functional literacy
Distribution
Print Media Content
The Movie Theater
The Internet
The Customization of Culture
Marketing and the Internet
Grassroots, Networks, Promotions
A New Way of Thinking
Conclusions and Implications for Marketers
Implications for marketers
Case Study
Time Warner Cable Houston Case Study

Chapter 9: The Evolution of Hispanic Marketing
Introduction
The Origin of a Market
An Explosion of Identity
The Story of the Hispanic Market
The Early Days of the Hispanic Market
The 1980’s “Decade of the Hispanic”
The Take-off years of the 1990’s
The 2000’s “Latin Boom”
Conclusions and Implications for Marketers
Implications for marketers

Chapter 10: The Future
Size and Futurism
Removing Obstacles
Lifestyle and Economic Borders Replace National Borders
Twin Small Towns: Small Town USA and Small Town Latin America
The Consequences of Self Exportation
“El Otro Lado” or The Other Side
Technology Enables Cross Border Lives
Mutual Cultural Influence and Consumer Behavior
Brands Transcend Nations
Economic Behavior Changes
The Right and the Wrong – Ethics in Hispanic Marketing
Conclusion

 

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